How a Magician-Mathematician Revealed a Casino Loophole

How a Magician-Mathematician Revealed a Casino Loophole

To rigorously study rifle mixtures, Diaconis used a powerful mathematical tool called the Markov chain. “A Markov chain is a repeated action whose outcome depends only on the current state and not on how that state was reached,” says Sami Hayes Assaf, a mathematician at the University of Southern California. This means that Markov chains …

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